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集装箱码头:受市场波动冲击

作者: 发布时间:2018-06-13 浏览量:487

集装箱码头:受市场波动冲击
图片来自网络,版权属于原作者

来源:American Shipper 2018-06-08
翻译:国际海事信息网 王雅媛 张运鸿
 
       德鲁里(Drewry)表示,集装箱码头运营商在受到其他几种相当于“完美风暴”的力量冲击后,不得不应对市场波动加剧带来的问题。
 
       大约18个月前,总部位于伦敦的咨询公司德鲁里发现了影响集装箱码头行情的四个相关趋势,即不断疲软的需求,大型船舶造成运营和资本成本的不断增加,班轮联盟数量减少引起的商业风险加大,以及承运人对低廉价格的需求。
 
       德鲁里公司负责港口和码头的高级分析师尼尔·戴维森(Neil Davidson)在本周的一次网络研讨会上表示,该行业之所以能够维持未计利息、税金、折旧和摊销前利润(EBITDA)的原因有几个,其中包括全球需求的恢复,该需求从2016年停滞,到2017年则增长超过了6%。这种增长仍在继续,但他表示,潜在的贸易战和制裁仍在让这一领域“乌云密布”。
 
       他表示,集装箱码头已经采取了节约成本的措施以降低运营成本,同时得以抵御承运人要求降低价格的压力,因为大型船舶可停靠的码头较少。随着船舶规模的扩大,一些码头的泊位无法容纳它们,甚至在某些情况下,一些泊位不得不废弃。
 
       戴维森指出,混合型码头运营商,即码头运营商所属于承运人,其地位变得越来越突出。但他还特别指出,由于个体承运人是联盟成员,他们并非完全控制正在使用的港口和码头。
 
       此外,海运公司和原本与之毫无联系的码头运营商之间的合资协议正在增加。
 
       这可能会导致冲突。戴维森表示,承运人希望以最低的价格支付码头服务费,而装卸公司却追求尽可能高的利润。
 
       码头运营商也不太注重新码头的建设,而是更多地关注现有设施的建设、兼并和收购,以及在港口内结成联盟。
 
       运营商们也在努力变得多样化,例如进入多式联运、内陆码头和自由贸易区等领域。不过戴维森表示,这种情况在欧洲和中东比在北美更为普遍。
 
(本文版权归国际海事信息网所有,图片版权归原作者,转载请注明出处。)
 
Terminals buffeted by volatility
 
Container terminal operators are having to grapple with increased market volatility after being buffeted by several other forces that amount to a “perfect storm,” says Drewry.
 
About 18 months ago, the London-based consultants identified four related trends impacting terminals: softening demand, higher operating and capital costs due to bigger ships, increased business risk from the reduction in the number of liner alliances and carriers demanding lower prices.
 
Speaking during a webinar this week, Neil Davidson, Drewry’s senior analyst of ports and terminals, said the industry has been able to maintain earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) for several reasons, including a recovery in global demand, from stagnation in 2016 to growth of more than 6 percent in 2017. That growth is continuing, but he said possible trade wars and sanctions are “creating clouds on the horizon.”
 
He said terminals have implemented cost-savings initiatives to mitigate operating costs and been able to resist carrier pressure for lower prices because large ships have less choice in which terminals they can call. As ships have grown in size, berths at some terminals can no longer accommodate them and in some cases are becoming obsolete.
 
Davidson said “hybrid” terminal operators — that is operators owned by carriers — are becoming more prominent. But he noted individual carriers are not in complete control of what ports and terminals they use because they are members of alliances.
 
There also is an increase in the number of joint-venture agreements between shipping lines and terminal operators that are not affiliated with shipping lines.
 
That potentially could lead to conflict. He noted carriers want to pay as little as possible for terminal services while a stevedoring company may seek to generate as much revenue as possible.
 
Terminal operators also are focusing less on building new terminals and more on filling up existing facilities, mergers and acquisitions, and forming alliances within ports.
 
They also are diversifying into areas such as intermodal transportation, inland terminals and free trade zones, though Davidson says this is more common in Europe and the Middle East than in North America.
 
 

来源:simic