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贸易战有碍美国西海岸集装箱运输

作者:   发布时间:2019-08-05    浏览量:1623   字体大小:  A+   A- 

贸易战有碍美国西海岸集装箱运输
图片来自网络,版权属于原作者

来源:American Shipper 2019-08-02
翻译:国际海事信息网 王雅媛 张运鸿

 

       北美多式联运协会(Intermodal Association of North America,以下简称IANA)称,因受美中贸易战影响,跨太平洋贸易航线的运力持续疲软,东海岸港口则在进口集装箱贸易中占据更大份额。

 

       IANA对集装箱联运的预测突显了铁路和卡车货运公司第二季度经历的货运衰退正进一步加剧。

 

       IANA表示,集装箱货运量较去年同期下降了3.8%,第二季度下降了1.5%,为456万箱。

 

       “多式联运第二季度表现不佳。”IANA在其最新的季度市场趋势评估中表示。

 

       国内铁路和卡车集装箱货运量较上年下降了6.3%至187万箱,那时干货柜的费率处于近两年里的低点,这导致更多货物采用卡车运输。

 

       IANA表示:“卡车运力维持在宽松水平,价格远低于2018年,与多式联运的竞争比去年更为激烈。”

 

       进入北美的国际海运集装箱运输量与去年同期基本持平,为238万箱。IANA指出,本季度开局强劲,4月份海运集装箱运量增长6%。美国总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)于5月对中国征收了25%的关税,而在此之前,中国商品的“前期吃重”(front-loading)可能让本月受益。

 

       IANA表示,这些关税减缓了从中国的进口,“对西海岸港口产生了巨大影响,尤其是在西南地区,因为中国进口产品通过该地区的比例高于往常”。

 

       通过美国西南部的海运集装箱数量下降了10%以上,其中来自中国的集装箱进口下降了5.6%。

 

       这些数据与该地区港口公布的第二季度进口额相符。美国最大的港口洛杉矶港第二季度的入境集装箱货运量下降了3.9%,而第二大港口长滩港同期的进口量下降了11%。

 

       但东海岸港口的情况正好相反,第二季度海运集装箱进口增长了10%。受欧元兑美元汇率走强的提振,欧美之间的跨大西洋贸易一直是海运市场中较为强劲的市场之一。但巴拿马运河加宽和扩建项目也让更多亚洲船能够抵达东海岸港口。

 

       IANA称:"欧洲进口的增加推动东海岸集装箱的进口增加,来自亚洲的进口亦是如此。"

 

       IANA表示,2019年下半年的前景取决于“贸易关税的去向”。与中国达成协议将有助于推动海运集装箱货运量的进一步增长。但如果增加关税,IANA认为“下半年(集装箱货运量)肯定会下降”。

 

(本文版权归国际海事信息网所有,图片版权归原作者,转载请注明出处。)

 

Trade spat dampens West Coast box flows

 

East Coast ports took a larger share of the import container trade, the Intermodal Association of North America (IANA) said, as volume in the transpacific trade lane remains weak due to the U.S.-China trade war.

 

IANA’s estimates of intermodal container activity underscore the deepening of the freight recession that railroads and trucking companies saw in the second quarter.

 

Container volumes fell 3.8% year-over-year to 4.56 million, compared to a 1.5% drop in container volumes during the second quarter, IANA said.

 

“Intermodal struggled in Q2,” IANA said in its latest review of quarterly market trends.

 

Domestic rail and truck container volumes fell 6.3% to 1.87 million from a year earlier as dry van rates hit a nearly two-year low, sending more freight back to trucks.

 

“Trucking capacity stayed loose and prices were much softer than in 2018, creating more intense competition with intermodal than last year,” IANA said.

 

International marine container traffic into North America was essentially flat year-on-year at 2.38 million. IANA noted the strong start to the quarter, with ocean container volumes up 6% in April. The month may have benefited from the front-loading of Chinese goods ahead of the 25% tariffs that President Donald Trump imposed on China in May.

 

Those tariffs slowed imports from China and “had an outsized impact on West Coast ports, particularly in the Southwest, since a higher-than-usual share of Chinese imports travel through this region,” IANA said.

 

The volumes of ocean containers moving through the U.S. Southwest fell more than 10%, with container imports from China falling 5.6%.

 

The figures align with what the region’s ports reported for import volumes during the second quarter. Los Angeles, the largest U.S. port, saw inbound container volumes drop 3.9% during the quarter, while Long Beach, the second-largest port, saw an 11% drop in import volumes over the same period.

 

But the East Coast ports saw the reverse, with ocean container imports rising 10% in the second quarter. Buoyed by the favorable exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar, the transatlantic trade between Europe and the U.S. has been one of the stronger markets for ocean freight. But the wider Panama Canal and expansion projects also are allowing more ships from Asia to reach East Coast ports.

 

“Rising European imports helped push East Coast container imports higher, but so did imports from Asia,” IANA said.

 

IANA said the outlook for the second half of 2019 hinges on “where trade tariffs go.” A deal with China would help put more growth into ocean container volumes. But if tariffs were to be extended, “the second half would certainly decline,” IANA said.

来源:simic