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英国:国际航运商会(ICS)研讨出题为“航运、世界贸易和二氧化碳减排”的简报文件

作者: 发布时间:2011-12-05 浏览量:7061
英国:国际航运商会(ICS)研讨出题为“航运、世界贸易和二氧化碳减排”的简报文件

摘自http://worldmaritimenews.com  (发表日期:15/11/2011)
翻译:国际海事信息网 黄崇韧 陶春梅
国际航运商会(ICS)---代表全球航运业和超过80%的世界商船队的各行各业,已先于本月底将在南非的德班召开的新一轮联合国气候变化会议(COP 17),为政府气候变化谈判研讨出一份简报文件。
据ICS的会员即国家船舶所有人协会透露该文件以“航运、世界贸易和减少二氧化碳的排放”为题。
ICS的秘书长Peter Hinchliffe解释说:
“国际航运业决心将其二氧化碳排放量到2020年减少20%,而其后会有更进一步的显著减少。然而,联合国气候变化德班会议需要给国际海事组织一个明确的指令让它通过发展基于市场的手段去继续其重要的工作,以帮助我们实现进一步减少排放量。”
航运业希望政府能在COP 17会议上对有重要意义的国际海事组织协议做出积极回应,该协议是在今年7月份提出,通过采取一系列技术手段来减少二氧化碳的排放量,且预期到2030年将船舶的二氧化碳排放量减少25%至30%。这是首部通过一系列具有约束力和强制性的措施,以减少二氧化碳排放量,且目前已经被整个业内认可的国际协议。
最重要的 - 并在不损害政府在“联合国气候变化框架公约”下可能同意的条款的情况下-航运界相信IMO正在致力于通过发展基于市场的手段来进一步推动二氧化碳的减排。这包括一个可能的航运业环境补偿基金—很可能与在“联合国气候变化框架公约”上通过的绿色基金相联系。这可以满足《京东议定书》中“共同但有区别的责任”(CBDR)原则,该原则通过引导大部分的资金从国际航运业流向发展中国家环境相关的区域,包括减缓和适应气候变化。
航运业希望政府理解到由于缺乏一个被IMO认可的全球框架,若采取区域或单边措施试图去控制船舶二氧化碳的排放量将会冒很大风险。而这不仅会对国际航运市场产生负面影响,而且也使得将全球航运业作为一个整体来减少二氧化碳排放收效甚微。
这部ICS的文件解释了为什么航运业是一个需要进行全局调节的全球产业,同时涵盖了航运业的全球调整者IMO用于减少船舶气体排放的各项详细举措。意味着IMO可能考虑到UNFCCC 的CBDR原则,和为什么航运业不适合使用国家二氧化碳排放目标的原因。

UK: ICS– Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of CO2 Emissions Briefing Document
The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) – which represents all sectors and trades of the global shipping industry and over 80% of the world merchant fleet – has produced a briefing document for government climate change negotiators, in advance of the next United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 17), which commences in Durban at the end of November.
The Document entitled ‘Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of CO2 Emissions’ is being distributed via ICS member national shipowners’ associations.
ICS Secretary General, Peter Hinchliffe explained:
“The international shipping industry is firmly committed to reducing its CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020, with significant further reductions thereafter. However, the Durban Climate Change Conference needs to give the International Maritime Organization a clear mandate to continue its vital work to help us deliver further emission reductions through the development of Market Based Measures.”
The shipping industry hopes that governments at COP 17 will respond positively to the significant IMO agreement, in July 2011, to adopt a package of technical measures to reduce shipping’s CO2 emissions, which by 2030 should reduce ships’ emissions by 25-30% compared to ‘business as usual’. This is the first ever international agreement containing binding and mandatory measures to reduce CO2 emissions that has so far been agreed for an entire industrial sector.
Most importantly – and without prejudice to what governments might agree at UNFCCC – the shipping industry believes that IMO is now very well placed to continue the real progress it is making on Market Based Measures to help deliver further emissions reductions. This includes a possible shipping industry environmental compensation fund – with possible linkages to any ‘Green Fund’ agreed by UNFCCC. This could address the Kyoto Protocol principle of ‘Common But Differentiated Responsibility’ (CBDR) by directing the lion’s share of any funds raised from international shipping to environment related projects in developing countries, including climate change mitigation and adaptation.
The shipping industry wishes governments to understand that in the absence of a global framework agreed by IMO there is a serious risk of regional or unilateral measures attempting to regulate CO2 emissions for shipping. This would have a seriously distorting effect on international shipping markets, but would also be much less effective in delivering meaningful reductions in CO2 emissions by the global shipping sector as a whole.
The ICS Document explains why shipping is a global industry requiring global regulation, and contains details of the measures that the industry and its international regulator (IMO) are taking to reduce ship emissions; means by which IMO might take account of the UNFCCC CBDR principle; and the reasons why shipping does not lend itself to inclusion in national CO2 emissions targets.

来源:worldmaritimenews.com

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